Article date: 06 OCT 15
## What’s in a Boarding Pass Barcode? A Lot
The next time you’re thinking of throwing away a used boarding pass with a barcode on it, consider tossing the boarding pass into a document shredder instead. Two-dimensional barcodes and QR codes can hold a great deal of information, and the codes printed on airline boarding passes may allow someone to discover more about you, your future travel plans, and your frequent flyer account.
Earlier this year, I heard from a longtime KrebsOnSecurity reader named Cory who said he began to get curious about the data stored inside a boarding pass barcode after a friend put a picture of his boarding pass up on Facebook. Cory took a screen shot of the boarding pass, enlarged it, and quickly found a site online that could read the data.
[![An older Delta boarding pass with a board code. Source: IATA.](https://krebsonsecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/deltabp-580x250.png)](https://krebsonsecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/deltabp.png)
An older Delta boarding pass with a bar code that does not include a frequent flyer number. Source: IATA.
“I found [a website](http://online-barcode-reader.inliteresearch.com/default.aspx) that could decode the data and instantly had lots of info about his trip,” Cory said, showing this author step-by-step exactly how he was able to find this information. ‘
“Besides his name, frequent flyer number and other [personally identifiable information], I was able to get his record locator (a.k.a. “record key” for the Lufthansa flight he was taking that day,” Cory said. “I then proceeded to Lufthansa’s website and using his last name (which was encoded in the barcode) and the record locator was able to get access to his entire account. Not only could I see this one flight, but I could see ANY future flights that were booked to his frequent flyer number from the [Star Alliance](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Alliance).”
The access granted by Lufthansa’s site also included his friend’s phone number, and the name of the person who booked the flight. More worrisome, Cory now had the ability to view all future flights tied to that frequent flyer account, change seats for the ticketed passengers, and even cancel any future flights.
The information contained in the boarding pass could make it easier for an attacker to reset the PIN number used to secure his friend’s Star Alliance frequent flyer account. For example, that information gets you past the early process of resetting a Star Alliance account PIN at United Airline’s [“forgot PIN” Web site](https://www.united.com/web/enUS/apps/account/settings/pin/pinResolution2.aspx).
After that, the site asks for the answer to a pre-selected secret question. The question in the case of Corey’s friend was “What is your Mother’s maiden name?” That information can often be gleaned by merely perusing someone’s social networking pages (e.g., does your aunt or uncle on your mom’s side have your mother’s maiden name as their last name? If so, are they friends with you on Facebook?)
<div class="wp-caption aligncenter" id="attachment_32519">[![bpdecoded](https://krebsonsecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/bpdecoded-580x263.png)](https://krebsonsecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/bpdecoded.png)
The readout from the barcode on Cory’s friend’s boarding pass (redacted).
United Airlines seems to treat its customers’ frequent flyer numbers as secret access codes. For example, if you’re looking for your United Mileage Plus number, and you don’t have the original document or member card they mailed to you, good luck finding this information in your email correspondence with the company. When United does include this code in correspondence, all but the last three characters are replaced with asterisks. The same is true with United’s boarding passes. However, the full Mileage Plus number is available if you take the time to decode the barcode on a boarding pass.
Interested in learning what’s in your boarding pass barcode? Take a picture of the barcode with your phone, and upload it to [this site](http://online-barcode-reader.inliteresearch.com/). [This blog](https://shaun.net/posts/whats-contained-in-a-boarding-pass-barcode) on the same topic from several years back includes some helpful hints on how to decode the various information fields that get dumped by the barcode reader.
Finally, the standards for the boarding pass barcodes are widely available and have been for years. Check out [this document](http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/stb/documents/bcbp_implementation_guidev4_jun2009.pdf) (PDF) from the **International Air Transport Association** (IATA) for more on how the barcode standards work and have been implemented in various forms.
Other source (in French Le monde): [Votre billet d'avion et vos données personnelles sont vulnerables au piratage](http://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2016/12/28/votre-billet-d-avion-et-vos-donnees-personnelles-sont-vulnerables-au-piratage_5055021_4408996.html)
**1. Search for phrases in page titles = allintitle:**
If you’re looking for a specific phrase in a page title, use the*allintitle:*search operator…
*allintitle:get twitter followers*
This can help you get past a lot of ads and get right to good information. For example, with *get twitter followers*, you have to scroll through 4 ads before getting to any content. When you do *allintitle* you immediately get to the relevant information:
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/side-by-side-1.png)
**2. Search for keywords in page titles = intitle: **
To find a specific word in a page title, use the *intitle: *search operator. For example, if you want to make sure your results all include *ecommerce* somewhere in the title of the article and not just in the body of the text, this is a good operator to use.
**3. Search for keywords in blog post titles = inblogtitle: **
If you want to search for keywords found specifically in blog content, use the related *inblogtitle: *search operator. For example…
This way, if you aren’t interested in other types of content, you can ensure your results all come from blog posts that include the word *ecommerce* somewhere in the title.
**4. Search for phrases in blog post titles = allinblogtitle: **
You can do the same thing for phrases in blog post titles…
*allinblogtitle:get twitter followers *
This query gives only those results that include all three keywords in the blog post’s title. The words may not necessarily appear in that order (as you can see in the image below, but they will all be present).
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/get_twitter_followers-1-e1496435398495.png)
**5. Search for keywords in page text = intext: **
Similar to the *intitle:** *and *inblogtitle:* operators, to find a specific word in a page’s text, use the *intext: *search operator…
This operator isn’t quite as specific as *intitle:** *and *inblogtitle:* but you’ll likely use it a lot, especially if you spend a good chunk of time searching for articles online like I do. ?
**6. Search for phrases in page text = allintext: **
To find specific phrases in a page’s text, use the *allintext:* operator. For example…
*allintext:ecommerce marketing tips*
This is more efficient than searching for *ecommerce marketing tips, *and you’ll probably use this operator a lot as well. As you can see in the screenshot below, this operator helps you cut past ad content and get right to the good stuff.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/allintext-1024x463.png)
**7. Search for exact matches = quotation marks**
Putting quotation marks around phrases helps you be ultra specific about what you’re searching for. For example, to get more relevant search results, query…
*“social media posting schedule” infographic*
*social media posting schedule infographic*
That particular example gets you less ads and it brings you to the actual infographics faster:
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Social-Media-Posting.png)
**8. Search for keywords in anchor texts = inanchor: **
Find specified keywords in anchor text by using the *inanchor: *operator…
The *inanchor:* operator is especially helpful in terms of SEO.
**9. Search for phrases in anchor texts = allinanchor: **
And to find phrases in anchor texts, use the *allinanchor: *operator…
*allinanchor:Snapchat marketing tips *
You’ll probably use this operator more often than inanchor: and it’s a good one to memorize.
**10. Search for keywords in URLs = inurl: **
If you’re trying to find a specific URL or pages about a particular topic, the *inurl: *operator can help. For example…
This search operator is great for those times when you can’t quite remember a URL. Or, you need to find web pages that specifically concern a particular topic, like ecommerce.
You could also query something like…
*rachel rofe inurl:ecommerce*
…if you knew the gist of the URL.
When you run this exact search, you discover all the blog posts I’ve posted on my site that have the tag “ecommerce.” You also discover posts about earning “passive ecommerce income” with the Low Hanging System.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/rachel_rofe_inurl-e1496435733331.png)
**11. Search for phrases in URLs = allinurl: **
The *allinurl:* search operator is even more useful if you’re stumped on a site’s URL. For example…
*allinurl:how to get more sales*
*rachel rofe allinurl:how to get more sales*
From this search, you get the following 9 ultra specific results, which sure beats wading through pages and pages of material:
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/allinurl-e1496435846719.png)
**12. Search for content by a certain author = allinpostauthor: **
To find content written by a particular author, use the *allinpostauthor:* search operator.
For example, if you want to find articles written by Neil Patel (not necessarily from his website), this is the easiest and fastest way to go about it.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/neil_patel.png)
**13. Search for words near each other = AROUND(X)**
This search operator enables you to get results including terms that are near each other. The X represents the maximum number of words that can separate two search words or phrases. For example…
*marketing AROUND(6) ecommerce*
With this search, you will get only those results where the words *marketing *and *ecommerce *are within six words of each other. The AROUND (X) operator comes in handy when you need to connect two different topics.
**14. Search for phrases near each other**
You can also use AROUND(X) to find phrases that are near each other using quotation marks. For example…
*“content marketing” AROUND(8) “ecommerce strategies”*
This query will give you only those results that connect “content marketing” with “ecommerce strategies” in eight words or less.
**15. Search for synonyms = ~**
To get results including synonyms for the term or phrase you’re searching for, use a tilde (~). For example…
*birthday party ~decor*
The results of this query also include similar words to *decor*, such as *decorations* and *supplies**, *which saves you time from having to run separate searches for *birthday party** decorations *and *birthday party supplies.*
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/birthday_decor.png)
**16. Search for alternate TLDs (top-level domains)**
To find sites, especially competitors’ sites, that have the same domain name as your website but a different TLD, run a search like the example below:
*site:ebay.* -site:ebay.com *
**17. Search for a phone number = phonebook: **
This one seems to be US-specific. But to find a list of phone numbers linked to a particular person’s name in the United States, use the *phonebook:* operator. For example…
This gives you all the white pages results for *Patti Smith*. You can further refine your search results by including the location search operator (*loc:*) too (see #47).
**18. Search using a range of numbers = ..**
To get search results within a range of numbers (especially when you’re conducting product research), use two periods (..) to specify a minimum and maximum value.
For example, say you’re in the market for a new Dell laptop but you don’t want to spend more than $600, you might query something like…
*dell laptops $400..$600*
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Laptops.png)
**19. Search specific types of domains = site: **
In addition to being able to search for specific websites, you can also search for specific types of domains. For example, if you’re looking for government information, you could query…
…Just add your search terms in the beginning…
*2017 taxes site:.gov *
This type of query is useful especially for research purposes—to make sure you’re getting the most official information possible.
**20. Search for a movie = movie:**
Use this search operator to look up information about specific movies, like which theaters a movie is playing at along with show times.
For example, if you wanted to quickly find out when and where *Wonder Woman* was playing in your city or town, this operator could be useful. Just type…
**21. Search multiple specific types of domains**
To search for multiple domain types, use parentheses plus the OR command. For example…
*healthcare (site:.gov OR site:.edu)*
Again, this really proves helpful when you’re trying to find reliable information. The query above will provide you with a list of results from government and university websites.
**22. Search hashtags = #**
Have Google include hashtags from social media networks by adding the pound symbol (#) right before your search term. For example…
This brings *news about #marketing on Twitter* up close to the top of the search results, letting you view the conversation that’s currently taking place.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Marketing-Hash-Tag.png)
**23. Search within a date range = daterange: **
To search for results within a certain date range, you can use the *daterange:* operator…
*ecommerce strategies daterange:2457875.43304-2457899.43304*
The only thing is this operator uses the Julian calendar format as opposed to the Gregorian calendar format, which is what most people are used to.
But you can use this [website](http://www.onlineconversion.com/julian_date.htm) to convert dates to the Julian calendar format.
This type of search is useful if you want to find the most up-to-date information about a topic. Things change so fast, so it’s beneficial to be mindful of when information was published.
**24. Search by filetype = filetype: **
If you’re looking for a particular filetype or document, the *filetype: *search operator is useful. For example, if you’re looking for a case study, which is often a certain filetype, you might search…
*inbound marketing filetype:pdf*
This search will yield information about inbound marketing only in PDF format.
**25. Search a specific site = site: **
If you’re looking for results from one specific website, do this: type *site: *plus the name of the website and then your query. For example…
*site:rachelrofe.com how to boost ecommerce sales*
Maybe you heard that a particular site offers really great information about a certain topic and you want to check it out. Perhaps you find a particular site to be more credible or trustworthy than others. Or you might just like a particular site’s writing style or find the site easy to navigate. Whatever the case may be, this operator helps you find the most relevant information.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/site_.png)
**26. Search maps = map: **
To view map-based results, type *map: *plus the location…
Especially if you’re traveling, this operator is useful to get a lay of the land or to discover where the most popular tourist attractions are. Here are the top results you get when you make the above query:
**27. Get Google to “fill in the blank” = ***
For those times when you can’t remember what’s supposed to go in your search—for example, when you can’t remember song lyrics—use the wildcard operator, or an asterisk (*). For example, if you have this stuck in your head “Drove my Chevy to the levee but the levee was…” but can’t quite put your finger on the rest of the lyrics or the name of the song, just type…
*drove my chevy to the levee but the levee was **
…and you’ll discover the song’s name is *American Pie *by Don McClean, and the word you’re searching for is *dry. *
**28. Search related sites = related: **
If you’re looking for websites that are related to a site you know, use the *related:* search operator…
This comes in handy if you want to find other sites that share similar information to a site you are already familiar with.
**29. Get more information about a website = info: **
For those times when you need to gather some extra information about a website, use the *info:* operator…
For example, when I did this for my site, I got the following results:
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/info_rachel_rofe-e1496442383397.png)
**30. Get a definition = define: **
If you need to get the definition of a word, use the *define:* operator. For example, if you wanted to know what the word *microsite *refers to, you would query…
And unlike some of the other search operators, this one also works for phrases without having to use quotation marks…
When you type this into Google, you discover…
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/define-e1496442466321.png)
**31. Get the weather = weather: **
To learn about the weather in your area or a place you’ll be visiting, just type *weather: *plus the location. For example, if you live in Boston, MA and you want to know what the weather is going to be like today, you’d query…
Then, you’d discover that the weather in Boston is clear with period clouds and 71 degrees Fahrenheit.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Boston_Weather-e1496442511236.png)
**32. Exclude words = – **
To exclude certain words from your search results, use a short dash (-). For example…
*facebook marketing tips -hootsuite*
Say you want to learn about how to market your products on Facebook, but you don’t want to use Hootsuite. Maybe you’re already using Hootsuit and know all about it and want to learn about different strategies. Excluding *hootsuite* helps give you the more narrowed down results you’re looking for.
And as you can see, without using this search operator, the very first result on the left-hand side comes from Hootsuite’s blog:
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/hootsuite-1024x442.png)
**33. Exclude multiple words**
Use this same operator to exclude multiple words to be even more precise. For example…
*facebook marketing tips -hootsuite -bufferapp*
You might not want to bother with results that talk about BufferApp either. And by using the short dash operator twice, you can exclude both the terms *hootsuite *and *bufferapp *from your results.
**34. Exclude exact match phrases**
To exclude exact match phrases, use a short dash (-) plus quotation marks…
*facebook marketing tips -“facebook live”*
Maybe you’re an introvert and shy away from creating any type of video content so you don’t want your search results to include tips about using Facebook Live. This is how you could customize such a search.
**35. Exclude multiple phrases**
If there are multiple exact match phrases that you want to exclude, do something like this…
*facebook marketing tips -“facebook contests” -“facebook ads”*
Maybe you already have experience with these techniques and you want to learn about other new ideas. If that’s the case, this is the most efficient way to search. Notice how the left-hand query specifically mentions Facebook contests in the top results…
[![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/facebook_marketing-1024x453.png)](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/facebook_marketing.png)
**36. Exclude subdomains**
To crawl though a website’s subdomains, use a combination of the *inurl: *and *site: *operators to narrow your search and exclude any subdomains that aren’t what you’re looking for. For example…
This query excludes the *www* subdomain. So anything beginning with *www* won’t be included in the results.
**![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/018.How-to-hack-Google-p-101x300.jpg)37. Include phrases**
To include entire phrases, combine the plus sign with what we talked about earlier: using quotation marks to get exact matches…
*how to get more sales +”instagram live”*
Similar to using the + operator to include specific words, when you add quotation marks around specific phrases, you direct Google to give you the most relevant results. In this case, those results that also include how to increase your sales volume with Instagram Live.
**38. Use an AND command = AND**
The AND search operator is another option to indicate that all search terms should be present in the results.
*ecommerce AND shopify*
In this query, you’re telling Google that results must include both the terms *ecommerce** *and* shopify**. *
**39. Use a customized AND command**
Combine the AND operator with quotation marks to specify exact match phrases…
*“instagram marketing” AND “pinterest marketing”*
This is the same principle as using the + search operator in conjunction with exact match phrases and quotation marks.
**40. Use an OR command = OR**
The OR operator tells Google to display results that have either A or B present. To do this, just type two keywords into the search bar and separate them with OR. For example…
*ecommerce platform shopify OR magento*
This operator is great for those times when you don’t need to be super specific but still want to somewhat narrow down your results.
Without using the OR* *operator, the results on the left mostly pit Shopify and Magento against one another in compare-and-contrast type articles, which isn’t necessarily what you’re looking for. Using the OR* *operator helps you be more precise about the results you want.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ecommerce_platform-1024x446.png)
**41. Use a customized OR command**
Further customize your OR searches by including exact match phrases…
*“content marketing” OR “social media marketing”*
Again, this is useful for when you don’t need to be super specific but you want to use OR with a specific phrase to refine your results.
**42. Use an alternative to the OR command**
The pipe operator (|) functions exactly the same way as OR. So you can use whichever operator is easiest for you to remember.
Here’s an example of the pipe operator in practice with both keywords and exact match searches:
*social media marketing instagram | pinterest*
*“email marketing” | “social media marketing”*
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/email_social_media.png)
**43. Identify pages that aren’t secure**
To discover webpages that aren’t secure, run a search like in the example below:
It’s also a good idea to run this search on your own website. If you’re using HTTPS, then, by and large, your site’s pages should come with the HTTPS certificate.
**44. Identify unnecessary text files**
Some text files are useful to keep on your site—for example, your robots.txt file. But other text files take up unnecessary space. To expose any unnecessary text files on your site, run a search like the one below:
*site:yoursite.com filetype:txt -inurl:robots.txt*
For my own site, I would do the following:
*site:RachelRofe.com filetype:txt -inurl:robots.txt*
(I just tried this for my website, and it looks like no unnecessary text files were found. Yay!)
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/site_inurl-e1496442689550.png)
**45. See cached versions = cache: **
To view an older version of a website, use the *cache:* operator…
Sometimes you might need to see an older version of a particular website—for example, if there’s information you need that’s been deleted since you last visited the website.
**46. Narrow your search to a specific location = loc: **
Especially if you’re doing local SEO or targeting a location-specific audience, the *loc: *search operator can come in handy. For example…
*coworking space loc:new york city*
The results of this query will show only those coworking spaces located in New York, NY.
**47. Track stocks = stocks: **
To learn more information about a particular company’s stocks, use the *stocks:* operator followed by the company’s ticker symbol. For example, for Bank of America’s stock information, you would search the following:
Or, as another example, if you’re a fan of Tesla, you would search…
**48. Restrict results to a particular news source = source: **
If you want to see results only from a particular news source, type *source: *after your query and then specify the news source.
This helps you get information from your most trusted sources.
*united states health care source:washington post*
*climate change source:discover magazine *or *climate change source:national geographic*
*best copywriting headlines source:copyblogger
[![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/best-copywriting-headlines.png)](https://rachelrofe.com/how-to-hack-google/best-copywriting-headlines#main)
**49. Use Google as a calculator = in: **
If you want to know how many units of something are in something else, you can use the *in: *search operator.
For example, if you want to know the number of miles per hour in the speed of light, you’d query…
*in:mph in the speed of light*
This could be really useful for cooking if you need to do any conversions. For instance, finding out how many ounces are in a pound…
*in:ounces in a pound*
**50. Include words = + **
If you want to make sure certain words are included in your search results, use the plus sign (+)…
*email marketing platform reviews +Experiture*
The above query is useful because there are tons of articles that talk about the pros and cons of various email marketing platforms. But not all of the articles mention Experiture specifically. So if you want to ensure that your results do talk about Experiture, the + operator is the way to go.
![Google search operators can make life so much easier. Grab some great ones here.](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/experiture-1024x450.png)
Whew! That’s it. Thanks to [Neil Patel](http://neilpatel.com/blog/google-search-operators/) for the inspiration behind this post, and I hope you get a lot of value from it over time.
![These Google search operator "hacks" make things so easy! ?](https://rachelrofe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Google-Hacks.jpg)
Source of this page :
> [How to “hack” Google with search operators](https://rachelrofe.com/how-to-hack-google)
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L’environnement utiliser est de type UNIX (Linux) et doit fonctionner sur Mac OS X.
Toutes les commandes sont présentée pour une Debian (9.1/stretch)
In optical communication network, signal travels through fibers in every large distances without significant attenuation. However, when it comes to the distance up to hundreds of kilometers, to amplify the signal during transit becomes rather essential. In this case, an optical fiber amplifier is required to achieve signal amplification in long distance optical communication. This article aims to give a brief introduction to the most deployed fiber [amplifier— Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)](https://www.4fiber.com/wdm-optical-network/edfa.html?lipi=urn%3Ali%3Apage%3Ad_flagship3_pulse_read%3BzkwpjuCWQbyowJSDogVyyg%3D%3D).